The Internet of Things (IoT): what is it, where does it come from, how is it used in industrial markets (IIoT), what are the consumer applications, how is it used across different sectors, what are the technologies and how is it evolving, with statistics, market research and examples of IoT projects. A complete guide to the Internet of Things and Internet of Everything.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an essential driver for consumer-facing innovation, data-driven business opportunities, industry transformation, new applications and even entirely new business models and revenue streams across all sectors in the digital transformation economy.
The Internet of Things is the interconnection of physical devices with embedded sensing and communication possibilities, including sensors and actuators, and of physical endpoints that consist of, among others tags, sensors, actuators, controllers and communication devices get attached to objects (from livestock to crops and industrial assets), and are connected with the Internet through uniquely identifiable IP addresses; whereby data is gathered and communicated via the embedded electronics and software, additional connectivity technologies and the cloud, networks or IoT platforms. The Internet of Things is an additional layer of information, interaction, transaction and action which is added to the Internet thanks to devices, equiped with data sensing, analysis and communication capabilities, using Internet protocols.
The Internet of Things further bridges digital and physical realities and powers information-driven automation and improvements on the level of business, society and people’s lives.
In this guide we look at all the mentioned topics, at what the Internet of Things (IoT) is and how IoT can help you realize what many are doing in practice today. We explain the what, why and how of the Internet of Things, the roots, the definitions and the various IoT flavors, use cases, some examples of Internet of Things projects and technological evolutions.
You can jump to the section that interests you most by using the Table of Contents below. We start with some definitions, terminology and history to provide you with a full overview of everything you need to know as an executive or decision maker.
If you want to attend an IoT-related event or check out inspiring keynotes, interviews and cases (videos) from leading IoT conferences and events, check out the 2017 IoT event guide.
Table of Contents
- 1 Internet of Things is a reality
- 2 The origin of the Internet of Things: how it all started
- 3 What is the Internet of Things? Definitions
- 3.1 Internet of Things definitions
- 3.2 Common elements in IoT definitions
- 3.3 IoT in flux: from a device- and technology-centric definition to a connected view
- 3.4 What is the Internet of Things – a visual answer
- 3.5 Defining the Internet of Things: an evolving reality
- 3.6 Working towards a universal IoT definition
- 3.7 More Internet of Things definitions
- 4 The exponential growth of the Internet of Things
- 5 The Internet of Things: many terms and many flavors
- 6 IoT for industrial markets: the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
- 7 IoT for consumers : the Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT)
- 8 Beyond connected things: the Internet of Everything (IoE)
- 9 Internet of Things and robots: the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT)
- 10 The Internet of Things across industries: sectors and use cases
- 10.1 Patterns and shifts in the vertical industry and IoT use case spend
- 10.2 The top industries driving the Internet of Things 2016-2020
- 10.3 The Internet of Things in manufacturing
- 10.4 The Internet of Things in retail
- 10.5 The Internet of Things in government and cities
- 10.6 The IoT in smart buildings and facility management
- 10.7 The Internet of Things in utilities and energy
- 10.8 The Internet of Things in automotive
- 10.9 The Internet of Things in other sectors
- 11 IoT trends for 2017 and beyond
- 12 IoT in practice: Internet of Things projects and examples
- 12.1 Industrial IoT case: developing a new service offering at ABB Robotics with IoT
- 12.2 Smart city IoT example: tackling air pollution in Glasgow
- 12.3 Environmental grassroots IoT example: a flood alert system
- 12.4 Industrial Internet of Things example: a mining case
- 12.5 A list of Internet of Things projects and real-life IoT cases
- 13 IoT technology: cloud and fog computing
- 14 IoT technology: IoT connectivity and network technologies
- 15 IoT technology: Internet of Things platforms
- 16 IoT Technology: the Internet of Things and IPv6
- 17 The Internet of Things and the Internet of Services
- 18 The Internet of Things and security
- 19 The Internet of Things and regulations
- 20 Distributed ledger technology (blockchain) and the Internet of Things
- 21 Internet of Things in business context: sell/realize the use case and outcome
- 22 Internet of Things made tangible: video
- 23 The Internet of Things in an infographic
Internet of Things is a reality
In several industries and companies, tangible value creation by leveraging the power of the Internet of Things is happening since quite some time as ample real-life IoT examples show.
However, it will still take until the next decennium (2020 and beyond) before hype and misunderstandings regarding the Internet of Things (or IoT) fade away and uncertainties and challenges in several areas are solved. 2017, 2018 and 2019 are pivotal years in this regard.
Understanding the Internet of Things: context
To understand the benefits, value, context and even technologies of the Internet of Things it’s important to look at use cases and examples across various applications and industries.
Although the Internet of Things is often approached as if it were a ‘thing’ as such one needs to understand the differences from an applications perspective in areas such as the Industrial Internet of Things, the Consumer Internet of Things and, beyond these ‘flavors’ and terms, the so-called IoT use cases, of which some are specific to industries (manfacturing, logistics, retail etc.) and to types of applications (e.g. smart home) and some are cross-industry (e.g. connected vehicles, wearables).
It’s also important to understand that the Internet of Things is not a technology but a reality, comprising various technologies and at the same time part of a broader technological picture.
In combination with big data and IoT analytics, actuators, data hubs, artificial intelligence, connectivity and networks (whereby the use case drives the choice of technology), the cloud, information processes, business process optimization, people, smart goals, increasingly robotics, IoT platforms/middleware and new ecosystems of value, the Internet of Things enables an unseen new wave of innovation and optimization.
The usage of the Internet of Things also happens at different speeds. IoT investments in the manufacturing industry, for instance, are far higher than in any other vertical industry and in the Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) space.
This is poised to change by 2020 although globally manufacturing will still account for the majority of IoT spend (hardware, software, services and connectivity).
The manufacturing industry, along with transportation and utilities are the three main IoT investment areas and are part of what is known as the Industrial Internet of Things.
Internet of Things as an evolving reality
Despite challenges, different speeds and the fast evolutions which we will see until the first years of the next decade, the Internet of Things is here.
In business and industry, there are thousands of Internet of Things use cases and real-life IoT deployments across a variety of sectors with the three industries which we just mentioned accounting for a more than significant part of deployments and investments as the image on the right shows.
In the IoT consumer space (consumer IoT was the fourth largest segment in 2016) there are many thousands of devices and applications for a broad variety of purposes.
The Internet of Things is a major force among the many phenomena and related technologies that show exponential growth in recent years and (will) result in digital transformation (initiatives).
Predictions regarding the economic impact, sub segments, technologies and number of IoT-connected devices keep evolving as well.
Even if for most people the number of IoT devices is not a relevant metric, it’s the one that gets most attention. Over the past few years predictions regarding the number of IoT devices by 2020 have been reviewed downwards. End 2016 most predictions varied anywhere between 20 and 30 billion devices by 2020 (more below).
It has taken over two decades for the ‘concept’ of the Internet of Things (IoT) to become a reality that is impacting and will impact many areas of business and society as we will see further.
Despite being a reality, the Internet of Things in general is still in its early days, regardless of massive attention, impressive forecasts and numbers, and major evolutions and deployments in many areas. However, if you look at the overall potential of what today we call the Internet of Things and in a few decades will probably have no more name at all, overall we are really just starting. Standards, technologies, maturity levels, devices and applications continue to evolve as various actors in the IoT ecosystem come up with platforms, new data analysis models and even evolving definitions and views to make IoT projects better and smarter. At the same time, challenges regarding regulation, security and data are being tackled – and even a universal IoT definition is still being debated.
The origin of the Internet of Things: how it all started
The idea of the Internet of Things goes back quite some time. We can even go back a very long time but will begin at the end of the previous Millenium where RFID has been a key development towards the Internet of Things and the term Internet of Things has been coined in an RFID context (and NFC), whereby we used RFID to track items in various operations such as supply chain management and logistics.
The roots and origin of the Internet of Things go beyond just RFID. Think about machine-to-machine (M2M) networks. Or think about ATMs (automated teller machine or cash machines), which are connected to interbank networks, just as the point of sales terminals where you pay with your ATM cards. M2M solutions for ATMs have existed for a long time, just as RFID. These earlier forms of networks, connected devices and data are where the Internet of Things comes from. Yet, it’s not the Internet of Things.
The role and impact of RFID
In the nineties, technologies such as RFID, sensors and a few wireless innovations led to several applications in the connecting of devices and “things”.
Most real-life implementations of RFID in those days happened in logistics, warehouses and the supply chain in general. However, there were many challenges and hurdles to overcome, as we covered end 1999 in a white paper for a Belgian RFID specialist who targeted the logistics industry (mainly warehousing and industrial logistics as RFID was still expensive).
Gradually, the use of RFID (and along with it, several NFC or “near field communication”, wireless technologies), became popular in areas beyond logistics and supply chain management: from public transport, identification (from pets to people), electronic toll collection (see image), access control and authentication, traffic monitoring, retail to – back then – innovative forms of outdoor advertising. That growing usage was, among others, driven by the decreasing cost of RFID tags, increasing standardization and NFC.
From RFID to the Internet of Things
The possibility of tagging, tracking, connecting and “reading” and analyzing data from objects went hand in hand with what would become known as the Internet of Things around the beginning of this Millenium.
It was obvious that the connection of the types of “things” and applications – as we saw them in RFID (and in M2M and more) – with the Internet would change a lot. It might surprise you but the concepts of connected refrigerators, telling you that you need to buy milk, the concept of what is now known as smart cities and the vision of an immersive shopping experience (without bar code scanning and leveraging smart real-time information obtained via connected devices and goods) go back since before the term Internet of Things even existed.
Again, it took a long time. Furthermore, we shouldn’t reduce the Internet of Things to just these popular and widely known concepts, even if consumer-related attention for the IoT without a doubt has led to the grown attention for it as you’ll read further.
How the Internet of Things was coined in a context of RFID
According to the large majority of sources, the term Internet of Things was coined in 1999 by Kevin Ashton, the co-founder of the MIT’s Auto-ID Center where a standard was developed for RFID, primarily from a retail perspective.
RFID existed years before talked about the Internet of Things as a system, connecting the physical world and the Internet via omni-present sensors. It also already existed when he co-founded the Auto-ID Center (now called the Auto-ID labs) at MIT.
Ashton, who was a marketer at P&G, wanted to solve a challenge he had seen before as Wired reports: empty shelves for a specific product. When shelves are empty, obviously no one can buy what’s supposed to be there. It’s a typical problem of logistics and supply chain. Ashton found the solution in RFID tags, which were still far too expensive to be able to put them on each product. When the MIT Auto-ID Center was launched, funded by the major global retail brands who understood the challenge and obvious benefits of a solution, he was ‘loaned’ by P&G and became the executive director at that Center as Wired explains.
The rest is a standard system, solving miniaturization challenges, lowering RFID tags prices and…history.
What is the Internet of Things? Definitions
There are many definitions of the Internet of Things (there is a list with definitions below). It just depends on how you look at it: the application perspective, the technological perspective, the industry context, the benefits, etc.
Internet of Things definitions
The Internet of Things is the interconnected sphere of physical devices with the Internet and other networks through uniquely identifiable IP addresses, whereby data is gathered and communicated through embedded sensors, electronics and software.
Physical devices are either designed for the Internet of Things or are assets, including living beings, which are equiped with data sensing and transmitting electronics. Beyond this endpoint dimension with devices, sensors, actuators and communication systems, the Internet of Things is also used to describe what is effectively done with the data acquired from connected things.
The Internet of Things describes a range of applications, protocols, standards, architectures and data acquisition and analysis technologies whereby devices and items (appliances, clothes, animals,….) which are equipped with sensors, specifically designed software and /or other digital and electronical systems, are connected to the Internet and/or other networks via a unique IP address or URI, with a societal, industrial, business and/or human purpose in mind. As you can read below, data and how they are acquired, analyzed and combined into information value chains and benefits are key in it. In fact, the true value of the Internet of Things lies in the ways it enables to leverage entirely new sources and types of data for entirely new business models, insights, forms of engagement, ways of living and societal improvements.
The Internet of Things is an umbrella term and, as mentioned, often a distinction is made between the Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). We cover both below as they are still often used. However, CIoT and IIoT cover many use cases and applications as well and thus are umbrella terms too. Furthermore, there are overlaps between both.
We see the Internet of Things more from an Internet of Everything perspective, which is again part of a broader context. What this means is explained further below. The Internet of Things is not a thing. Data which is acquired, submitted, processed or sent to devices, in most cases travels across the Internet, fixed lines, across cloud ecosystems or via (tailored) wireless connectivity technologies which are developed for specific applications of IoT (e.g. wireless technologies for the IIoT).
Bridging digital, physical and human spheres through networks, connected processes and data, turned into knowledge and action, is an essential aspect in this equation. In recent years the focus in IoT has shifted from the pure aspect of connecting devices and gathering data to this interconnection of devices, data, business goals, people and processes, certainly in IIoT.
Common elements in IoT definitions
Most Internet of Things definition have several aspects in common. Here are the elements they have in common:
Everyone talks about a network (of devices, sensors or objects, depending on the source). It’s pretty clear that a dimension of networks and connectedness, we would even say hyper-connectedness, needs to be present in any decent IoT definition. The discussion then becomes if it’s “just” about the Internet or also about other networks. You know the answer. Obviously, the dimension of automation is an important one in many Internet of Things use cases, from a connectivity perspective too.
Devices, physical objects, sensors, the physical world, appliances, endpoints, the list goes on. They are all terms to describe what is obviously an essential part of a network of things. Some add words such as smart or intelligent to the devices. Let’s say that they contain technology that grants them an additional capability of ‘doing something’: measuring temperature or moisture levels, capturing location data, sensing movement or capturing any other form of action and context that can be captured and turned into data.
This is part of that intelligent notion but it also brings us far closer to the essence. You can define the Internet of Things by simply describing all characteristics (“what it is”) but you also need to look at its purpose (“the why”). Data is a crucial part of this equation, albeit just a first step as data as such is not enough. However, there is no Internet of Things without (big) data.
Data as such is maybe not without value but it sure is without meaning unless it is used for a purpose and it is turned into meaning, insights, intelligence and actions. Maybe you heard about the good old DIKW model (from data to information to knowledge to wisdom – and action)? Well, the data gathered and sensed by IoT devices needs to be communicated in order to even start turning it into actionable information, let alone knowledge, insights, wisdom or actions.
Intelligence and action
We just touched upon this aspect. However, in most definitions we see that intelligence is attributed to just the network(s) and/or the devices. While we certainly need, for instance, ‘intelligent networking technologies’ in many cases and while connected devices have a capacity of action, the real intelligence and action sits in the analysis of the data and the smart usage of this data to solve a challenge, create a competitive benefit, automate a process, improve something, whatever possible action our IoT solution wants to tackle. Just as there is no Internet of Things without (big) data, there is no useful Internet of Things deployment without understanding meaning, intelligence, (big) data analytics, cognitive and AI and so on.
There is always a degree of automation, no matter the scope of the project or the type of Internet of Things application. In fact, most IoT applications are essentially all about automation. And that often comes with costs and benefits. Industrial automation, business process automation or the automatic updating of software: it all plays a role, depending on the context. You know the saying: software eats the world. Well, it also drives Tesla cars and soon autonomous vehicles whereby maintenance, upgrades and so forth are all about automation and software, powered by data which are fed by sensors and connected devices.
Meaning and hyper-connectedness is what we miss in many answers on the questions regarding what the Internet of Things is. We stay too descriptive and focused on just the technologies and don’t look at purpose and intelligent action enough. Obviously we can say that this isn’t strictly about the Internet of Things but more about the Internet of Everything or the Internet of Things ecosystem or something else but for us it’s key in order not to confuse the Internet of Things with a bunch of fitness devices that are connected with some app, for instance. Because, although these are the kinds of apps most people speak about, they certainly are where the majority of Internet of Things use cases are and they are the furthest away from the original meaning of IoT.
IoT in flux: from a device- and technology-centric definition to a connected view
While the above mentioned elements come back in all IoT definitions there are a few we miss that are essential in the evolving views regarding the Internet of Things as it moves from devices and data to outcomes and actionable intelligence, and ultimately to a hyper-connected world of digital transformation (DX).
The aspect of hyper-connectivity and integration often lacks. In a context of a reality whereby devices, people, processes and information are more interconnected than ever before; an Internet of Things definition and approach just needs to mention these aspects as the IoT is part of something broader and is more about data, meaning and purpose than about objects. A key element of that hyper-connectivity in the IoT sphere is that sometimes mentioned ongoing bridging of digital and physical environments, along with human environments, processes and data as the glue, enabler and condition to create value when properly used for connected purposes.
Then there is also the possibility to create new ecosystems where connected device usage by groups of people can lead to new applications and forms of community ecosystems. Last but not least and we’ve mentioned this often before: no Internet of Things without security.
Virtually everyone agrees that in the next decade, in 2020 and beyond, we will decreasingly speak about the Internet of Things.
The Internet of Things is a misnomer in two senses.
- First, the things don’t describe the essence of what it truly means and make it seem like a thing that is composed of connected things. However, as said it is not a thing as it’s often referred to in popular media. On top of covering a vast connected ecosystem of myriad technologies, platforms and other components as such, the Internet of Things also fits in a technological and organization context whereby actionable intelligence is at the core of human and business value creation opportunities. The Internet of Things has no purpose nor means to exist without all these aspects.
- Secondly, after years of future visions around very old concepts and ideas such as connected refrigerators, the current fascination with the possibilities that arise as a result of connecting ‘things’, the ‘connected things’ aspect will move to the back and IoT will be seen just as we look at the Internet today: an obvious phenomenon of increased connectivity that is like electricity. What is behind it, the sensors, the devices, the protocols, the essential possibilities, will not matter, except to people who need to realize IoT projects in real life and watch over the technology aspect within frameworks of regulations, meaning and security.
The question and evolution increasingly will not be about the Internet of Things but about the broader digital transformation economy picture with outcomes and integration in mind and de facto overlapping sets of technologies being a given.
What is the Internet of Things – a visual answer
To end this part on definitions and descriptions, here is a good illustration of the vast reality of the Internet of Things – and at the same time an illustration of what IoT means.
The top right section clearly shows the Internet of Things: smart objects with an IP address which can sense (depending on use case, gather data on various parameters such as location, temperature, moisture level and dozens of more possibilities). This data gets sent for processing or analyzed at the source.
The upper left section is the ‘Internet of People’. Think about everything you use to connect with the Internet, such as your smartphone. It’s in the meeting of this sphere and the Internet of Things that most IoT consumer applications today get born. Several so-called Consumer IoT (CIoT) applications such as wearables can’t live without smartphones. Moreover, for several control and monitoring activities you’ll need some sort of device such as a tablet, for example in a smart home context.
The sphere at the bottom of the image is composed of all connected objects that do not have an IP address and do not belong to the Internet of Things. They exist since a long time, mainly in the sphere of industrial Internet and we see them migrate to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Replacing such devices or tagging them so they become IoT-enabled is a part of what happens in IIoT.
Defining the Internet of Things: an evolving reality
The definition of the Internet of Things is in evolution in several ways:
- Industry bodies are updating IoT definitions and descriptions in a field that is still lacking standardization.
- The market is evolving and changing views and definitions as well. Whether it concerns analysts or companies, which are very active in the IoT space: many of them have invented their own terms.
- There is a shift in the way we think about the Internet of Things. You can define things based upon what they are and what they are not. You can also define them by focusing on their characteristics. And, as far as we’re concerned the most important question to answer in a definition: why and how do we use “something”?
- We look less at the ‘things’ and technologies of the Internet of Things and more at the broader reality and context in which the Internet of Things fits. The many use cases and the focus on outcomes (services) become more essential.
While the Internet of Things – and we weigh our words – as a ‘reality’ has benefits and consequences many can’t grasp yet, we need to change the narrative and look at IoT from the holistic perspective of:
- How it is connected with people, processes, data, business, innovation, meaning, etc.
- The outcomes and goals from an integrated view, with regards to ecosystems of value, of related technologies and of business and platform ecosystems.
And we need to learn from the many projects, cases and IoT examples out there.
Working towards a universal IoT definition
The Internet of Things fits in – and requires – a context of integration, hyper-connectedness, digital transformation and certainly actionable data and information so it’s more than that big connected ‘thing’ we all talk about it.
Yet, as mentioned it’s important to speak the same language. That’s also what the people at the IEEE think. This association (IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), which was founded in 1963 is known for its exhaustive work in regards with standards in technologies.
Via a special IoT page on the website of the IEEE where members can join in contributing to the, quote, “ever-changing definition of IoT” you can download the latest version (PDF, no registration) of “Towards a Definition of the Internet of Things”, as revised and published on May 27th 2015.
It is 86 (!) pages long. Of course it doesn’t just strictly cover a definition of the IoT, it provides a huge overview of considerations, evolutions, specifications and various aspects in regards with the IoT ecosystem and the technological and social aspects of the Internet of Things as depicted below. It even dives deep into questions such as what are ‘things’ in an IoT ecosystem view.
More Internet of Things definitions
Looking for more definitions of the Internet of Things? Below is a list with over 20 more IoT definitions (some are at the same time obviously great resources to continue your IoT journey).
Feel free to add a definition you prefer more! At the same time these links can serve as additional resources to learn more about IoT.
The exponential growth of the Internet of Things
As we saw earlier the Internet of Things still has a long way to go and the growth of connected devices or “intelligent things” will continue to rise exponentially over the coming years, as multiple challenges get solved.
In that sense it is safe to say that, despite the fact that we’ve been talking about the Internet of Things for a long time and the fact that IoT in many industries is a reality, we are still in the early years. Although it is expected that, as a term and concept, the Internet of Things will dissapear and just become part of a new normal, we are far from there. Note, however, that in a business context it’s best to focus on goals and use cases when trying to get projects accepted and done than to speak about the IoT.
With the exponential growth, enabled by what Gartner would call a “nexus of forces”, comes growth in many other areas such as traffic, storage, processing capacity, data volumes, network capabilities, you name it.
The Internet of Things exists in many industries, applications and contexts. Some projects are still in the pilot stage while others form the backbone of important processes, operations and innovations. In other words: the Internet of Things is certainly here but the degree in which it is changing the ways we live, work and conduct business depends on the context.
Predictions on the number of connected devices
The exact predictions regarding the size and evolution of the IoT lanscape tend to focus on the number of devices, appliances and other ‘things’ that are connected and the staggering growth of this volume of IP-enabled IoT devices, as well as the data they generate, with mind-blowing numbers for many years to come.
It makes it look as if the Internet of Things is still nowhere. Make no mistake though: it is already bigger than many believe and used in far more applications than those which are typically mentioned in mainstream media.
At the same time it is true that the increase of connected devices is staggering and accelerating. As we write this, approximately each single hour a million new connections are made and there are about 5 to 6 billion different items connected to the Internet. By 2020, Cisco expects there will be 20 billion devices in the IoT. Estimations for 2030 go up to a whopping 50 billion devices.
Some predictions are even more bullish, stating that by 2025 there will be up to 100 billion devices and a few even think that it will be even higher.
The truth is that we will have to wait and see and that by the time we have written about recent predictions, new ones are already published. When we first wrote this overview Gartner estimated that by 2020 we would live in a world with over 26 billion connected devices. As the image below indicates Cisco back then predicted that 37 billion intelligent things would be connected to the Internet by 2020 (earlier the company talked about 50 billion) and some even went over 200 billion. The latest updates (end 2016) forecast anywhere between 20 and 30 billion connected (IoT-enabled) devices in 2020.
According to Juniper Research (data end 2016), the number of connected IoT devices, sensors and actuators will reach over 46 billion in 2021.
A variety of sources and predictions in context
Regardless of the exact numbers, one thing is clear: there is a LOT that can still be connected and it’s safe to assume we’ll probably reach the lower numbers of connected devices (20-30 billion) by 2020.
The variety of sources and pace at which data about the expected number of connected devices is released is so big that we plan a section with forecasts from several sources, nicely dated, so you can stay up-to-date.
There are several reasons why these predictions differ so much. Among them are certainly various uncertainties and challenges regarding the Internet of Things which are further fuelled by impactful events regarding among others security and privacy. And then there is the fact that the Internet of Things obviously also gets hyped by those who have an interest in doing so (such as companies selling IoT solutions). This doesn’t mean that the Internet of Things is a hype as such (it has been at the beginning of this Millennium). However, the realities, data and even definitions regarding IoT are so vast that all predictions are really merely attempts, often fitting in a hypish perspective.IoT: looking beyond the hype of data and predictions
Impact, data and outcomes before devices
Moreover, it’s not that much the growth of connected devices which matters but how they are used in the broader context of the Internet of Things whereby the intersection of connected and IP-enabled devices, big data (analytics), people, processes and purposeful projects affect several industries.
Also the data aspect is critical (again with mind-blowing forecasts) and how all this (big) data is analyzed, leveraged and turned into actions or actionable intelligence that creates enhanced customer experience, increased productivity, better processes, societal improvements, innovative models and all possible other benefits and outcomes. The impact of the IoT from a sheer data volume and digital universe perspective is amazing.
The number of IoT devices in the overall connected devices landscape
According to the Ericsson Mobility Report 2016, there will be approximately 28 billion connected devices by 2021. The report expects the Internet of Things to surpass mobile phones as the largest category of connected devices with 16 billion connected devices being IoT devices (of the the forecasted total of 28 billion, which include for instance smartphones as we mentioned in our article on mobile and mobility.
Reasons for the exponential growth of the Internet of Things
So, why this exponential growth of the Internet of Things and, admittedly, equally exponential growth of the attention for it, sometimes feeling like a hype?
Well, first of all IoT today is effectively hyped (yet, at the same time very real). Gartner’s latest Hype cycle for emerging technologies shows that the Internet of Things is at the peak of inflated expectations (while NFC is reaching the slope of enlightenment).
There are numerous reasons for the growing attention for the Internet of Things. While you will often will read about the decreasing costs of storage, processing and material or the third platform with the cloud, big data, smart (mobile) technologies/devices, etc. there certainly is also a societal/people dimension with a strong consumer element.
A factor that has also contributed a lot to the rise of the Internet of Things, certainly in a context of the industrial IoT and smart buildings, to name a few, is the convergence of IT and OT (Operational Technology) whereby sensors, actuators and so forth remove the barriers between these traditionally disconnected worlds.
The Internet of Things: many terms and many flavors
In order to distinguish between the many potential use cases and situations where the Internet of Things is and can be used, other terms have been added and they do overlap a bit in some cases (no term is perfect).
We’ve mentioned some briefly before, let’s go a step further and look at the Industrial Internet of Things, the Consumer Internet of Things, the Internet of Everything and the Internet of Robotic Things.
IoT for industrial markets: the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
The Internet of Things, the Internet of Everything, the Consumer Internet of Things, so many terms that it becomes confusing.
The main value and applications are found in the so-called Industrial Internet of Things or IIoT. In all honesty one of the main reasons why we started talking about the Industrial Internet of Things is to distinguish it from the more popular view on the Internet of Things as it has becoming increasingly used in recent years: that of the consumer Internet of Things or consumer electronics applications such as wearables in a connected context or smart home applications.
Industrial Internet of Things definition
The Industrial Internet of Things is defined by the Industrial Internet Consortium as ‘machines, computers and people enabling intelligent industrial operations using advanced data analytics for transformational business outcomes” as you can also see in the infographic below.
What industries are covered? Some people mainly look at ‘heavy’ industries such as manufacturing, oil and gas, transportation. Others also add ‘less heavy’ smart city or smart agriculture applications into account. Sometimes there is a bit a thin line because of course you can also have very simple applications in smart cities.
What is crucial in the Industrial Internet of Things or IIoT is the mentioned integration (of the worlds of) IT (information technology) and OT (operational technology).
For now, IIoT is the most important segment in IoT, much more than consumer applications, for instance.
IIoT use cases, benefits and challenges
The Industrial Internet of Things is related with Industry 4.0: all IoT applications in Industry 4.0 are forms of IIoT but not all IIoT use cases are about the industries which are categorized as Industry 4.0.
Typical use cases of the Industrial Internet of Things include smart lightning and smart traffic solutions in smart cities, intelligent machine applications, industrial control applications, factory floor use cases, condition monitoring, use cases in agriculture, smart grid applications and oil refinery applications.
So, even if the term is not so much an umbrella term as the Internet of Things is, it still covers many potential applications and use cases.
A lot of organizations are considering IIoT applications and many have already started, certainly in early moving markets such as manufacturing or oil and gas. But others are still waiting or uncertain.
According to research from IDG in 2016, 70 percent of organizations are still in the “consideration”, “early discussions” or “planning phase” as the infographic below indicates.
And this despite the many opportunities, among others in regards with business continuity, efficiency, cost reductions etc.
But there are also many challenges, not in the least in regards with industrial data as you can also see in the infographic and the page of Visual Capitalist, who made it.More about the Industrial Internet of Things
The opportunities and difference of IIoT
It’s important to know that the Industrial Internet of Things is not just about saving costs and optimizing efficiency though. Companies also have the possibility to realize important transformations and can find new opportunities thanks to IIoT.
Those who can overcome the challenges, understand the benefits beyond the obvious and are able to deal with the industrial data challenge have golden opportunities to be innovative, create competitive benefits and even entirely new business models in Industry 4.0.
Below is a presentation that explains the Industrial Internet of Things and also how the IIoT is different than other Internet of Things applications, for instance in the consumer space.
Additional resources on the Industrial Internet of Things
- The state of the Industrial Internet of Things market
- The industrial IoT revolution in continuous industry transformation
- The Industrial Internet versus the Industrial Internet of Things
- The Industrial Internet of Things market poised to reach 123.89 billion USD by 2021
IoT for consumers : the Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT)
Give or take 5 years ago, consumers rarely saw what the Internet of Things would mean to their private lives. Today, they increasingly do: not just because they are are interested in technology but mainly because a range of new applications and IoT-enabled devices has hit the market.
These devices and their possibilities are getting major attention on virtually every news outlet and website that covers technology. Wearables and smart watches, connected and smart home applications (with Google’s Nest being a popular one but certainly not the first): there are ample of you know the examples.
Although it is said that there is some technology fatigue appearing, the combination of applications in a consumer context and of technology fascination undoubtedly plays a role in the growing attention for the Internet of Things. That consumer fascination aspect comes on top of all the real-life possibilities as they start getting implemented and the contextual and technological realities, making the Internet of Things one of those many pervasive technological umbrella terms. Obviously, the Consumer Internet of Things market is not just driven bynew technology fascination: their manufacturers push the market heavily as adoption means news business possibilities with a key role for data.
The Consumer Internet of Things and consumer electronics
With the Consumer Internet of Things we are strictly in a consumer electronics reality.
While some of the applications in this space already are popular (fitness and personal health, for instance), the real growth still needs to come.
Below are some IoT consumer electronics challenges to tackle first:
- Smarter devices. Consumers are waiting for smarter generations of wearables and IoT products, which are able to fulfil more functions without being too dependent from smartphones, as is the case with many of such devices today (think the first generations of smartwatches, which need a smartphone).
- Security. Consumers don’t trust the Internet of Things yet, further strengthened by breaches and the coverage of these breaches. Moreover, it’s not just about the security of the devices but also about, among others, the security of low data communication protocols (and IoT operating systems). An example: home automation standard Zigbee was proven easy to crack in November 2016.
- Data and privacy. On top of security concerns, there are also concerns regarding data usage and privacy. The lack of trust in regards with data, privacy and security was already an issue before these breaches as we cover in our overview of the consumer electronics market evolutions.
- A “compelling reason to buy”. The current devices which are categorized as Consumer Internet of Things appliances are still relatively expensive, “dumb” and hard to use. They also often lack a unique benefit that makes consumers massively buy them.
The Consumer Internet of Things market: focus on experiences and benefits
Whereas the focus of the Industrial Internet of Things is more on the benefits of applications, the Consumer Internet of Things is more about new and immersive customer-centric experiences.
It is expected that the market will really start picking up as of end 2017 or 2018, when the Consumer Internet of Things will grow rapidly across several types of devices and applications, once manufacturers are able to meet the various challenges.
As mentioned, the Consumer Internet of Things typically is about smart wearables and smart home appliances but also about smart televisions, drones for consumer applications and a broad range of gadgets with IoT connectivity.
It’s important to note that de facto the Consumer Internet of Things overlaps with the use of the IoT across several industries.
On top of examples such as smart meters, as explained above, it is clear that the CIoT offers manufacturers of devices and applications important opportunities to leverage data to build new revenue streams and even new partnerships and ecosystems to leverage this data in various ways. Data privacy and security will remain a challenge for several years to come but at the same time new generations of devices with clear benefits and a focus on the consumer experience will boost the market.IoT consumer device ownership research
RFID in the lives of consumers
RFID has come a long way. Even if you don’t know what it means, you “use” it.
Examples? Electronic door locks, many modern credit cards, identification cards with RFID, the list is long.
RFID is even used so much that end 2014, security firm Norton and Betabrand designer Steven B. Wheeler joined forces to create the world’s first RFID (and NFC) blocking jeans to avoid theft of data.
Additional resources on the Consumer Internet of Things
- Wearables market outlook 2020: drivers and new markets
- The smart home: coming but not here yet – outlook
Beyond connected things: the Internet of Everything (IoE)
The Internet of Everything is a term that was coined by Cisco but is also used by other companies.
The Internet of Things focuses too much on the things and, as mentioned, is also very broadly used. It’s why some started distinguishing between the just mentioned Consumer Internet of Things and the Industrial Internet of Things.
Cisco and other prefer to use the term Internet of Everything, partially because of that umbrella term issue, partially because of the focus on things and partially to provide context to their views and offerings. But it’s not just marketing. The Internet of Everything or IoE depicts crucial aspects of IoT, namely people, data, things and processes. It’s this mix that matters. Moreover, the classic illustration of the Internet of Everything also made clear what, for instance, machine to machine or M2M is all about.
We’ve based ourselves on that classic depiction and added the dimensions of value and data analysis.More about the Internet of Everything
Internet of Things and robots: the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT)
Are you ready for another term? Here we go: meet the Internet of Robotic Things, aka IoRT. What is about?
One of the major characteristics of the Internet of Things is that it enables to build far stronger bridges between physical and digital (cyber) worlds. You see it in all IoT use case and in the Industrial Internet of Things you see it in what’s called the Cyber Physical Systems.
Yet, in most case, the focus is predominantly on the ‘cyber’ part whereby data from sensors essentially are leveraged to achieve a particular outcome with human interference and with a focus on data analytics and ‘cyber’ platforms. The way it happens, as ABI Research, who came up with the IoRT concept (which is real today) puts it is that essentially many applications and business models are built upon passive interaction.
By adding robotics to the equation and turning devices (robots) in really intelligent devices with embedded monitoring capabilities, the ability to add sensor data from other sources, local and distributed intelligence and the fusion of data and intelligence in order to allow these devices determine actions to take and have them take these actions, within a pre-defined scope, you have a device that can control/manipulate objects in the physical world.
Sounds complex or too futuristic? Examples in the space of Industry 4.0 (with collaborative industrial robots), warehouse automation (Amazon Robotics) and even personal robots for cleaning and so forth make it more tangible. It’s still early days for the IoRT but the projects and realizations in this next stage are real. IoRT is not tied to the consumer and industrial IoT distinction, it’s ubiquitous. Definitions, sources, market data and the mentioned examples via the button below.The Internet of Robotic Things
The Internet of Things across industries: sectors and use cases
Previously we mentioned how the Internet of Things today already is a reality in several industries, more so than in consumer applications. However, the landscape evolves fast.
The Internet of Things is used in various industries for numerous use cases which are typical for these industries. On top of that, there is a long list of IoT use cases that is de facto cross-industry.
As the Internet of Things is embraced and deployed at different speeds throughout consumer and industrial sectors, we take a look at some of the main industries and use cases which drive the IoT market and IoT projects.
Patterns and shifts in the vertical industry and IoT use case spend
Note that the biggest and/or fastest growing use cases are not always related to the biggest and/or fastest growing industries in terms of IoT spending.
Among the reasons for this phenomenon:
- The costs and scope of the investments. A full-blown, enterprise-wide IoT project in industrial settings such as manufacturing or logistics is far more expensive than a smart home implementation.
- The shifts in the major IoT use cases and industries. Remember that the Internet of Things mainly started as an industrial and business sector phenomenon. Industries with many existing physical assets can realize fast cost savings and efficiencies of scale. That’s why today they spend more in IoT projects than consumer segments where we see more ‘new’ devices, rather than existing assets.
- The Consumer IoT catching up. As industries keep leading the current waves of IoT spending until 2020, the fact that they started first and the advent of ever more consumer use cases and better (safer and more useful) solutions means that gradually consumer IoT catches up with Industrial IoT spending.
- The rise of cross-industry IoT applications and of scenarios whereby consumers and businesses meet each other in business-driven initiatives (for instance, the push for telematics in insurance, the push for smart meters in utilities) has a levelling effect on the adoption and spend in IoT.
The top industries driving the Internet of Things 2016-2020
According to IoT spending data and forecasts, published early 2017 by IDC, the 3 main industries in terms of IoT spending in 2016 were, respectively, manufacturing, transportation and utilities. Consumer IoT spending ranked fourth.
While globally in the period until 2020, manufacturing will remain the major industry (except in Western-Europe) there will be global changes in this top 3. Among the fastest growing industries in the period until 2020 are insurance, healthcare, retail, consumer and, as mentioned, cross-industry initiatives.
Obviously, there is a difference between IoT spend and number of IoT projects.
A report by IoT Analytics, really a list of 640 real-life IoT projects, indicates that from the perspective of number of projects connected industry ranks first but is closely followed by smart city implementations (where we mentioned the report), which rank second.
Why this difference? On top of the fact that various firms use various approaches and definitions (even if you compare spending forecasts instead of spending and projects as we do here), there is the very simple fact that many smart city projects tend to be far cheaper than industrial counterparts. In most smart city IoT projects, low data bandwidth is needed and equipment, depending on use cases is far cheaper. As an example: the – for now – cheapest connectivity technology over longer ranges, LPWAN, is predominantly found in smart city projects.More on IDC'S forecasts
The Internet of Things in manufacturing
Given the “origins” of the Internet of Things (remember RFID) and the most typical (early) use cases, manufacturing (for now) is still taking the lead.
According to the same IDC data we mentioned earlier, published early 2017, the manufacturing industry was good for a total IoT spend of $178 billion in 2016, which is more than twice as much than the second largest vertical market (in IoT spend), transportation.
Gartner analyst Jim Tully said that there were 307 million installed units at the time of the Q&A in the manufacturing industry where systems with sensors have always been embedded into manufacturing and the automation processes. In a May 2015 forecast on the worldwide growth of the Internet of Things market (poised to grow 19% in 2015) IDC forecasted that the IoT market in manufacturing operations will reach $98.8 billion in 2018. Drivers: efficiency optimization and “linking islands of automation”.
According to a February 2015 report by PwC, the majority of US manufacturers has deployed devices to collect, analyze/measure and act upon data. The infographic which came with the report, mentioned data from a survey conducted in February 2014. According to that survey 34.6 percent of respondents had already implemented devices and sensors to gather this data and another 9.6 percent was about to implement IoT devices within a year. Only 24 percent of all respondents from the US manufacturing industry said they had no plans to implement devices to collect, analyze and act upon data.
US manufacturers were using Internet of Things Technology in the manufacturing plant (32 percent), followed by the warehouse, the extended supply chain and the customer environment.
In March 2016, BI Intelligence estimated that global manufacturers will invest $70 billion on IoT solutions in 2020 (in 2015 they invested $29 billion). Business Insider also mentions research from TATA Consultancy, indicating an average increase in revenues by 28.5 percent between 2013 and 2014 for manufacturers who have Internet of Things solutions.
When looking at the usage of the Industrial Internet of Things and manufacturing, also note the importance of cyber-physical systems (sometimes used interachangeably with IIoT, which is not correct) and the notion/reality of digital twins in the Industrlal Internet and Industry 4.0.
IoT in manufacturing: use cases
Internet of Things use cases in manufacturing cover a broad range of applications, including:
The graphic from Verizon’s “State of the Market: Internet of Things 2016“, below shows some data and benefits across several use cases.More about IoT in manufacturing
The Internet of Things in retail
Retail is moving up fast, both in operations and customer-facing circumstances as Tully says.
In its mentioned forecast on the worldwide growth of the Internet of Things market, IDC also emphasized retail in an ongoing effort to digitize the consumer experience. Digital signage in retail outlets is in fact the big driver in 2015, IDC found. Also remember how the term Internet of Things was first mentioned in a context of supply chain management in retail and consumer goods environment. It is mainly in the optimization of processes and of logistics that the IoT offers immediate benefits to retailers. However, obviously the customer-facing and inventory-related aspects matter a lot too.
The use of IoT in retail, among others, changes customer experience, leads to better customer insights, enables new collaborations and business models and further blurs the line between digital and physical in an in-store context.
Retailers are working with IoT for several innovative and immersive approaches, ranging from virtual closets and self-checkouts to smart shelves (inventory accuracy) and connected vending machines. As data analysis in such real-time environments needs to happen fast, fog computing approaches are being closely looked at here.More about IoT in retail
The Internet of Things in government and cities
The Internet of Things (IoT) is already used across several government activities and layers as digital transformation efforts rank high on the government transformation priority list. Obviously, the government sector is a very vast ecosystem and so are the many IoT use cases in government.
On top of the use of IoT for national, regional, supra-national, local and government-related services (often delivered by government agencies or regulated, semi-regulated and state-sponsored service providers), the Internet of Things sooner or later often involves government. Think about regulations, for instance. Or the role of governments in energy. And let’s not forget security and safety.
Smart cities and citizen-facing public services
Probably the best-known usage of IoT in a government context concerns smart cities, in reality mainly smart city applications.
Smart city projects are what people hear about most and they get a lot of attention, among others because smart city applications are close to the daily lives of residents. Another reason why smart cities are often mentioned is that de facto smart city projects account for a big portion of IoT deployments. Think about smart waste management (often a local matter), smart parking and environment monitoring.
More about smart cities
Another area where we see the Internet of Things popping up is in citizen-facing public services.
To a large extent smart city uses cases overlap with IoT use cases in public services as one of the key tasks of a city is to serve the citizens. However, with public services we also go beyond the local/urban level. The degree of overlap depends on the way government services are organized in a particular country or region. IoT initiatives in citizen-facing public services include the already mentioned local ones but also smart energy (often with state-sponsored partners), for instance.More about IoT and public services
Infrastructure, healthcare, safety and security
Public services brings us to infrastructure. Again, this is a broad category which can be organized by several partners in the government ecosystem. Smart grid is an example, smart roads another one (in cases where road infrastructure is a national or ‘shared’ matter). But also think about applications such as toll collection.
Next there is safety and security. On a national level this certainly also includes defense and the industrial-military complex. On more regional levels we see applications such as smart lighting (there is a link between lighting of public spaces and crime), various forms of identity control, surveillance and so on. Last but not least, there is the role of IoT in security alerts, fighting natural disasters etc.
That brings us to healthcare, another sector going through digital transformation, and closely related with government. Healthcare is organized differently across the globe, from funding to healthcare insurance and actual care. However, there is always a government component. Healthcare is a key IoT market.
Moreover, governments have a role in public health which can be enhanced by taking initiatives using the Internet of Things and in collaboration with private an state-sponsored partners. The same goes for public safety by the way. An example: collaborations between governments and insurance firms, leveraging telematics.
The omnipresence of the Internet of Things in government – opportunities, regulation and challenges
There are really hundreds of ways in which governments leverage and can leverage the Internet of Things to improve citizen experience, realize cost savings and, not to forget, generate new revenue streams.
The latter is quite important as many IoT projects have an impact on the funding of cities. A simple example: if you have a perfectly working smart parking solution in a city, you lose revenues for all the obvious reasons. So, it’s not just a matter of technologies but also of finding creative ways to turn enhanced citizen experience and citizen services in a global picture that is beneficial for everyone.
This takes time, planning and, as you can imagine, given the complexity of the government ecosystems, lots of alignment and coordination.
In some countries and on supra-national levels initiatives are taken and funding is foreseen across a range of ‘smart’ initiatives where often also cities and government agencies can benefit from in the scope of projects within a designated area and an agenda with a clear goal. At the same time, governments get increasingly active in the area of IoT security and regulation, as said, is always nearby. As an example, take the connected car of the future. It’s pretty clear that governments will be hugely involved in this and it’s less obvious than it may seem. Just to give you an idea: in some countries, traffic regulations are already a complete mess because of the arrival of fast electrical bikes. You can imagine what will happen once vehicles are connected and ‘smart’.
The IoT in smart buildings and facility management
The Internet of Things plays an important role in facility management, among others including data centers and smart buildings.
The integration of IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technology) plays an important role in this regard as it did in the fast rise of Industrial IoT. Thanks to the Internet of Things and this IT/OT convergence, facility managers and building professionals can realize various goals. These depend on the nature and scope of the facility/building.
Smart buildings are among the fastest growing cross-industry IoT use cases in the period until 2020. Moreover, research indicates that data collection from buildings and other structures such as HVAC is already high.
Leveraging data from IoT-enabled facility assets, along with new IoT platforms and facility management, with embedded IoT capabilities, are leading to possibilities and benefits in areas such as:
- Smarter building security systems.
- Smarter Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).
- Safer and more comfortable/healthy workplaces and buildings.
- Facility service quality optimization.
- Cost reductions, also in a green building context and in reduction of energy and water consumption.
- Better planning, operational efficiencies and enhanced resource allocation.
- Predictive maintenance and facility maintenance planning.
- Facility equipment control, configuration and regulation.
- Building management automation.
The image below from sustainable cleaning and facilities management company havencab shows a few components in the bigger smart building component picture.
More about facility management, smart buildings and IoT
The Internet of Things in utilities and energy
Facing huge challenges and transformations for several reasons, utility firms have 299 million units installed according to Gartner’s Tully. On top of utilities in the traditional sense there is also a lot happening in oil and gas and in energy.
Among the many typical use cases in utility firms: smart meters to improve efficiency in energy, from a household perspective (savings, better monitoring etc.) and a utility company perspective (billing, better processes and of course also dealing with natural resources in a more efficient way as they are not endless) and smart grids (which is about more than the Internet of Things).
The Internet of Things in automotive
Connected cars and all the other evolutions in the automotive industry are driving the IoT market as well.
Again, according to the same research by IDC, connected vehicles is the hottest US market in the overall Internet of Things picture. The connected car is one of those typical examples where the Consumer Internet of Things and Industrial Internet of Things overlap.
The Internet of Things in other sectors
Other industries include healthcare, transportation (where “smart devices” and sensors have existed for quite some time), logistics, agriculture and more.
Add to that the consumer context of IoT and you know why it is such a hot topic. Stay tuned for more detailed overviews per industry with various examples of applications in practice and with various use cases per sector.
IoT trends for 2017 and beyond
In the previous section and across this IoT page we mention several predictions for the coming years regarding various aspects of the Internet of Things (also check out the sections and additional links for forecasts in specific industries, technologies and so forth).
We summarized some predictions, looked at the top IoT trends for 2017 which Ovum released in March 2017 and added several more.
Below are some general takeaways of our +20 IoT trends for 2017 (and beyond):
- LPWA technologies go mainstream with several use cases and projects.
- Security and regulatory compliance both become top priorities (and are linked).
- Larger organizations deploy more as-a-service-models and at the same time more IoT as-a-service solutions are embraced.
- Blockchain and IoT convergence is on the rise but inherent flaws in blockchain will need to be fixed.
- Artificial intelligence and analytics become increasingly important in the growing IoT reality.
- In the Industrial Internet, IT and OT integration grows but is hindered by cybersecurity concerns.
- The Consumer IoT market picks up and starts its rapid increase towards the second half of the year.
- Wearables will be a fast growing segment outside of the Consumer context, among others in healthcare and industrial markets.
- Industries/sectors where a lot of experimentation has been happening such as governments (smart cities) and retail will drop several pilot projects and focus more on IoT use cases with immediate benefits.
- Industry 4.0 and manufacturing invest most in IoT and drive the growth of the Internet of Robotic Things, fog computing and 5G.
IoT in practice: Internet of Things projects and examples
On top of looking at Internet of Things use cases and applications within specific industries it’s worth the while to see how the Internet of Things is leveraged in practice, regardless of sector.
When looking for Internet of Things use cases you will mainly find examples of scenarios and goals within which Internet of Things deployments can be categorized. These Internet of Things use cases tend to use a different taxonomy, depending on the research firm or company that uses them.
Internet of Things examples in the sense of actual cases and real-life deployments help you see the business rationale behind IoT implementations. As said, do check them out, regardless of industry as the sought benefits and results are often relatively universal.
Below are a few Internet of Things examples we’ve explained previously, check them out! You can also check out a list and additional resources we gathered on our Internet of Things example page. The list is crowdsourced so feel free to add more.Internet of Things examples
Industrial IoT case: developing a new service offering at ABB Robotics with IoT
This manufacturing Internet of Things example essentially revolves around the ability to create pro-active and additional (new) services and revenues thanks to the Internet of Things.
It explains how ABB Robotics, the industrial robotics division of ABB, connected the robots it sells to customers and thanks to this connection enhances customer service and much more, tapping into the power of actionable data and insights. The case is based upon information from Jasper (Cisco).Read the case
Smart city IoT example: tackling air pollution in Glasgow
This Internet of Things case fits in a smart city application (remember that smart cities aren’t just about the Internet of Things nor even about just technologies).
More specifically, this Internet of Things example zooms in on a challenge regarding environment and air quality monitoring in the city of Glasgow. It’s interesting from the perspective of the goals but most of all from the viewpoint of an – additional – mobile component, which greatly enhanced the city’s possibilities to monitor better and in more circumstances than before. This case is based upon a case study of Spain-based Libelium.Read the case
Environmental grassroots IoT example: a flood alert system
The Internet of Things is often used in an environmental context and the monitoring of potential dangers, from volcano eruptions as you can see in our Internet of Things example regarding flood monitoring.
Keeping an eye on rising water levels and gathering the data in order to warn people and the necessary local instances faster in case of a potential flood is what this particular case is all about. It has a grassroots dimension and shows how the measurement of several parameters (also, for instance groundwater levels) can lead to systems for the greater good without breaking the bank.Read the case
Industrial Internet of Things example: a mining case
If you think that the Internet of Things and digital transformation are not for industries that have been around for ages, think again.
With a range of challenges, not in the least regarding IP connectivity, the underground mine of Chelopech in Bulgaria was transformed into an Internet of Everything and Industrial Internet example with several outcomes such as a whopping increase of production, enhanced safety for miners, communication possibilities and savings, previously impossible maintenance and problem solving possibilities and rapid insights in production overall. As the CEO of Dundee Precious Metals, owner of the gold and copper mine, put it in 2016, the mining industry needs disruptive innovation too. And while that’s happening in Chelopech and other mines of Dundee and others (Rio Tinto, Glencore and so forth), many mines still need to embark on the journey. Maybe the case offers some inspiration.Read the case
A list of Internet of Things projects and real-life IoT cases
Below is a list with the mentioned cases and several more. Feel free to add additional IoT cases. This list is purely for educational purposes.
IoT technology: cloud and fog computing
As so much data is created and increasingly will be created with the Internet of Things, the decentralized ways in which these data are generated need different aproaches, among others in the ways they are transported, processed and analyzed, driving (automated) actions.
One of these approaches is fog computing, a system-level architecture (and form of edge computing) that extends the computing, network and storage capability of the cloud to the edge of the IoT network. This is especially important when a large geographical area is involved, when data needs to be processed extremely fast and data is collected at the extreme edge as Cisco calls it, for instance on oil rigs or in ships.
Fog computing is not the only technological aspect to deal with the reality regarding data, bandwidth, processing and analysis requirements of IoT projects. There are also numerous other technologies, among others regarding connectivity as we see below, that are involved. Other technological components include the middleware, the sensors, actuators and other hardware, the cloud and so forth.
With the huge challenges and opportunities on the unstructured data front in mind, however, it’s key to look at the evolutions in fog computing, certainly in more industrial applications where analytics close to the point of origin will become more and more important as data volumes rise, everything moves to the edge, networks become more intelligent and resources need to be allocated well, avoiding too much sending back and forth of big data sets.IoT network technologies
IoT technology: IoT connectivity and network technologies
Time for a look at the Internet of Things connectivity aspect. In order to transmit data between devices and from devices to platforms, the cloud or any other destination, network technologies are needed.
In some applications, for instance in smart home solutions, this is relatively easy as there are several general and several proprietary connectivity solutions in typically rather simple use cases.
IoT connectivity is traditionally divided into IoT connectivity solutions for PAN (Personal Area Network), LAN (Local Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) and (less) in NAN (Neighbourhood Area Network).
These are concepts we know from computer networking in general since quite some years. To connect from a PAN to a LAN and a WAN or, let’s say, the Internet you need a gateway. Today, various IoT connectivity solutions enable to do so but in a not so distant past you needed smartphones, mobile networks and other solutions that weren’t not made for IoT didn’t guarantee enough safety or quality.
The rise of LPWAN companies such as Semtech (LoRA), Sigfox and so forth needs to be seen from that perspective whereby the focus was on having enough bandwidth, low power consumption and so forth at cheaper prices than existing possibilities. Building specific networks for IoT is, among others, what made non-cellular LPWAN solutions successfull.
Today that landscape continues to evolve and change.
Most IoT cases require several connectivity technologies
In many, more advanced, Internet of Things use cases and examples, de facto a mix of connectivity technologies is needed.
Once more, everything depends on the context and the offering is vast: from fixed networks and wireless IP networks to low-rate wireless personal area networks, low-power wide area wireless solutions and even satellite; there is a (mix of) connectivity solution(s) for all cases.
Moreover, within each type of connectivity solutions there are often various players, each with their own characteristics and specifications.
As an example: in low-power wide area connectivity (LPWA), used in applications that need a long battery life, have limited data needs and have to cover a broader area, there are several non-cellular (outside of the licensed mobile spectrum) actors of which LoRA, Sigfox, Ingenu and Weightless (SIG) are among the better known ones. However, there are also newer cellular solutions (licensed spectrum of mobile operators) with again various forms and flavors: NB-IoT (NarrowBand IoT or CAT-NB1), LTE-M (CAT-M1) and so forth. In the cellular space we also need to mention 5G, as well as 3G and so forth as you’ll see in the example below. The same diversity goes for connectivity solutions in short-range conditions and so on.
That’s why several IT solution providers, telecom operators and so forth in practice offer a mix of connectivity solutions to enable their customers to leverage the Internet of Things for their specific needs.
The IoT connectivity puzzle is getting more standardized but it is not getting easier as new technologies and standards such as new Bluetooth versions (Bluetooth 5, Bluetooth MESH), new cellular mobile solutions, other forms of Wi-Fi etc. arise on top of an already vast ecosystem of all sorts of connectivity solutions, based upon various standards which are used in a specific context, such as Zigbee (see example below), Z-Wave and so many more, including vendor-specific approaches, certainly in the smart home space.
What’s important to know is that there is no one size fits all solution in any type of connectivity: the use case and application drives the needs.More on LPWA (licensed and unlicensed band)
An example of IoT connectivity in practice: combining Zigbee and 3G for mobile air quality monitoring
Here is an example of why you often need various types of connectivity in practice.
We’ve covered an example of an IoT case in the area of air quality monitoring whereby vehicles drive around to complement air quality data from fixed systems previously.
If you look at the connectivity solutions that are used in the case you see two types of connectivity.
- One is Zigbee, one of the connectivity solutions built upon the 802.15.4 standard for low-rate wireless personal area networks. As the image indicates in this case it is used to send the ‘sensed’ environmental data in the box on top of the van to a sensor hub in the glove box of the vehicle.
- The second one is 3G, the cellular standard, which is used to send the gathered information to the cloud and the application it powers.
And we can even add another technology: GPS (which enables tracking). You understand that the more complex the case (think about large-scale industrial applications), the more different connectivity solutions can be needed.
More on IoT connectivity
More on IoT connectivity
Below are a few more links to IoT connectivity topics and predictions we’ve tackled on this site.
- Wireless Internet of Things connectivity: LPWAN IoT forecasts 2017
- Sigfox and the accelerating race for global LPWAN IoT network coverage
- LoRaWAN across the globe: LoRa Internet of Things networks overview
- Discussing the future of IoT networks at LPWAN World Forum 2016
IoT technology: Internet of Things platforms
In order to build an IoT solution, different components are required. There are the connected or tagged devices, equipped with sensing and data capabilities. There is the challenge of connectivity which we just tackled, there is the question of analytics. You need a strategy. Security cannot be an afterthought. The list goes on.
Another component which becomes increasingly important is the IoT platform. The term is used for many sorts of platforms but we look at so-called IoT Application Enablement Platforms, what real IoT platforms are. They combine several functions in one software solution and are offered by hundreds of vendors, including big players such as Amazon, Microsoft, SAP and IBM, to name a few.
- In 2017, the IoT platform market will grow with an unseen triple-digit percentage of 116%.
- Open data and interoperability become even more important.
- IoT platform growth remains huge with high double-digit numbers until at least 2025.
- The main drivers to acquire IoT platforms are better, faster and cheaper development and deployment.
- There is a growing interest in open source IoT platforms.
- The market will go through a stage of consolidations as vendors rush to offer more complete solutions which can also be leveraged in vertical industry situations.
IoT Technology: the Internet of Things and IPv6
The Internet of Things and IPv6 go hand in hand. IPv6 (IP stands for Internet Protocol) is a key step in the evolution of the Internet and the Internet of Things.
What are we talking about? It’s a known fact since really many years that the number of available IPv4 addresses doesn’t suffice anymore. As the Internet continues to grow and with the rise of the Internet of Things, IPv6 essentially makes sure that we don’t run out of IP addresses (which are needed in IoT too) and the growth of the Internet doesn’t stop. With IPv4 IP addresses would become a scarce good with all the necessary consequences.
Simply said, IPv6 guarantees that all things, whether it concerns all the ‘traditional’ Internet stuff out there or the many devices in the Internet of Things, will have their IP addresses. Why? Well, the latest version of the Internet protocol, v6, simply allows far more IP addresses and thus enables the identification, location and communication of more devices on the Internet.
The math: IPv4 is good for more or less 4.3 billion addresses (it’s 32-bit), IPv6 (128-bit) allows for 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 possible internet addresses or 100 for every atom on the face of the Earth as BT’s Tim Rooney calculated.
Wikipedia has a pretty good overview of the various challenges and other facts regarding IPv4 and IPv6 in case you’re interested.
The Internet of Things and the Internet of Services
In more than one way the Internet of Things is really an Internet of Services, not just regarding the services that are needed by organizations for the IoT projects they want to realize but also in the context of the goals of deployments as a service to the stakeholders and the as-a-service economy
There is a growing need for IoT services by organizations. Today, many Internet of Things projects, certainly in the Industrial Internet of Things, revolve around process automation and data analytics.
There is also a demand for IoT services in other areas than services around automation, information management and data analytics. And in the context of, for instance, smart homes, smart cities and smart healthcare there is a need for specialist services. In practice and in big projects many service providers even need to collaborate as you cannot be a specialist in everything. Collaboration is key.
At the same time many de facto Internet of Things deployments in real life are about the development of better data-driven services, both in the sense of enhanced customer service and in the sense of tappng into new revenues by developing services in more pro-active and sometimes even disruptive ways, moving companies from a product to a service business model. Our list of IoT cases gives some good examples of this evolution.Internet of Things services outlook
The Internet of Things and security
The Internet of Things still is a security nightmare although one needs to differ and not generalize but rather look at various cases.
Nevertheless, both in consumer applications and industrial applications, there are many questions that need to be solved.
Security is a challenge in consumer and industrial IoT
The Consumer IoT space is probably most talked about from the security viewpoint as there are several issues and as security concerns seriously impact the market.
When Accenture looked at the slowing down of the consumer electronics market at the occasion of the Consumer Electronics Show 2016, the company observed that in order to bridge the gap between the current decreasing growth of the consumer electronics market and the next stage of increasing growth, which is expected to be driven by consumer applications in the IoT space and wearables, vendors need to address these security challenges.
The many security challenges regarding the Internet of Things are not just in the consumer electronics space. In business applications, the security challenges of a hyper-connected Internet of Things reality are at least as high, not to mention the impact on IT infrastructure and data capabilities.
Cybercrime meets the Internet of Things
Connected devices and the internet of Things are increasingly used for large scale attacks.
Several DDoS attacks have been reported throughout 2016, including the up to 620 Gbps DDoS attack which made the website of well-known security journalist Bryan Krebs go down end September 2016. The attack received a lot of attention, also because it was related with other issues such as free speech (Krebs was attacked by hackers after exposing a network of hackers for hire, the attack was so intensive that Akamai had to stop protecting Kreb’s website against DDoS attacks and Google put the site in its Project Shield).
Fears are high that soon such attacks and even more intensive ones will become the norm. And it’s not just about DDoS attacks. Ransomware is also moving to the Internet of Things and security experts warn for cascade effects of exploited vulnerabilities in the connected reality which the IoT is. On top of the security challenges, compliance and data privacy also need to be tackled.
IoT security risks
In the IoT, sensors communicate with each other and through gateways, connected to an Internet of Things platform, the various applications of the company are fed and triggered.
Obviously such a platform needs to be highly secure as do the communications between sensors, gateways and the platform.
Some aspects of the IoT security concerns
- Vulnerabilities in the devices.
- Difficult or non-existing procedures to patch IoT devices.
- A lack of awareness in and support from the boardroom.
- Too much focus on saving costs in IoT projects and not investing in essential security controls.
- Not enough attention for security overall and for the ‘perimeter of everything’ which is simply needed in the Internet of Everything.
- Lack of standardization across networks and application programming interfaces (APIs).
- Old devices and rogue vendors.
- Consumer education and awareness.
- Standardization and protocols (although serious efforts are being done).
Internet of Things security priorities and evolutions
Before embarking on an IoT project journey, it’s important to realize that security is not an afterhought and is an end-to-end part of any digital strategy.
Many IoT enterprise security professionals still are not monitoring IoT devices in real time, a situation that is expected to change throughout 2017 and 2018 as security gets more attention and IoT platforms with IoT device monitoring are leveraged rapidly.
Other evolutions and facts you can expect on an IoT security level include:
- Continued breaches as the industry players step up the security pace to become trusted partners.
- More sophisticated threats and a more sophisticated usage of devices that are out there already and need an urgent solution.
- A potential delay in the Consumer Internet of Things picking up.
- Changes in the ecosystems used to deploy IoT projects.
- An increasing choice for the most secure connectivity options, depending on the use case.
- Different ways of handling data and on securing the endpoints where data is generated.
- Organizations will invest more in IoT device, discovery, onboarding and monitoring to gain visibility and be able to do real-time monitoring.
Security and the Industrial Internet of Things
The Industrial Internet of Things and the integration of IT and OT comes with specific security challenges, as do many IIoT use cases and technological/human elements which are typical in industrial Internet.
Cybersecurity is one of the key reasons slowing down Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) adoption. Check out the evolutions, challenges and solutions with additional resources on IIoT and security.
Security and the Industrial Internet of Things
More resources about the Internet of Things and security
- IoT security: smart business requires smarter Internet of Things security
- IoT security and the consumer: the challenges and education question
- IoT security: the majority of IoT devices is not monitored in real time
- Growth of the IoT Managed Security Services market 2017-2021
The Internet of Things and regulations
As data has become a key business asset in the digital transformation economy and the Internet of Things, as well as the many related technologies, revolve around connected data and how it’s leveraged, new regulatory frameworks are planned and/or deployed.
The Internet of Things leverages personal data across several use cases. Think about driverless cars, wearables for private or healthcare applications, telematics in insurance, IoT and marketing, the smart home, the list is endless.
IoT, the GDPR and the ePrivacy Regulation
The protection of personal data, with significant fines in case of serious breaches, in a digital economy is a cornerstone in the General Data Protection Regulation or GDPR.
This EU Regulation affects all organizations which process personal data of EU citizens, no matter where the organization physically resides or the processing is done. In other words: it’s crucial to prepare for the GDPR in general but also with regards to the IoT. Why? Because with the Internet of Things comes a range of technologies, devices, use cases, applications and processes which are pretty specific and amazingly overlooked, despite the fact that the GDPR becomes enforceable in May 2018 and takes a lot of work. If you HAVE or PLAN to deploy an IoT project that involves personal data from EU citizens in any way you MUST know the GDPR rules.
A second piece of legislation, also in the EU, that will impact what can and can’t be done with the Internet of Things is the ePrivacy Regulation. This text for now is not final yet but once it is will have significant consequences as it covers privacy across electronic communication channels and the draft text explicitly mentions the Internet of Things.
IoT and regulation: awareness is crucial, compliance will drive the market
As other regions and specific vertical industries are about to be confronted with regulations regarding IoT and related technologies, awareness, preparation and information is crucial.
It takes work but we wrote a guide on the Internet of Things in the scope of the GDPR and the ePrivacy regulation which will be updated as other legislation and regulations are added, to get you started. There are also intentions to, for instance, regulate robots and AI.
On the positive side (and security nor data breach avoidance can’t be an afterthought in any IoT project) the regulatory changes also will drive the adoption of the IoT in both consumer and business/industry applications, where data, privacy and security remain key challenges as you could read in the previous section in security and the Industrial Internet of Things because here is the thing: without trust nothing goes.The Internet of Things and regulation: GDPR, ePrivacy and more
Distributed ledger technology (blockchain) and the Internet of Things
Internet of Things applications and blockchains (or distributed ledger technology) are expected to go hand in hand.
As both are distributed and blockchain is conceived for applications involving transactions and interactions with new forms of contracts as other benefits, it is expected that the technology behind blockchain can serve as a basis to keep a ledger of IoT devices, how/what they communicate and data on their state.
Distributed ledger technology (the technology that essentially is behind ‘the’ blockhain which powers Bitcoins but can be used for many other reasons) is seen as a way to enhance compliance in the Internet of Things.
Accountability and audit trails thanks to the use of distributed ledger technology, however, are not the only benefits of the converge of blockchain and the Internet of Things.
In an infographic, IBM mentions 3 key benefits of using blockchain for the Internet of Things:
- Build trust
- Reduce costs
- Accelerate transactions
According to the company blockchain is a game-changer for IoT. End 2016 Forrester Research also zoomed in on the benefits, possibilities and evolutions.More about blockchain and IoT
Internet of Things in business context: sell/realize the use case and outcome
While IoT matters a lot, it’s important to remember that usually business people don’t talk about the Internet of Things to their bosses in the scope of their work and project plans. If they do, it’s best to stop it unless the CEO and CFO are IT experts.
Business execs often don’t even speak about the use cases in terms of more…terms, such as smart cities or smart grids. In the end, they know that they need to digitally transform, that the Internet of Things is a truly disruptive game-changer but their job is to solve challenges , innovate and optimize in function of activities and goals. Simply put: few LOB executives will try to sell an IoT project to the CEO and there aren’t that many that will try to convince the board or the CFO regarding the benefits of a smart metering project. But, to take the latter example, they will certainly succeed if they come up with a way to reduce costs, gain valuable insights, develop new revenue streams and increase customer satisfaction, for instance, certainly if they did the math.
Internet of Things made tangible: video
To make the ways the Internet of Things works and can be used across various areas of business and society here is a video example.
Among the many videos and presentations explaining the IoT is a video from the IBM Think Academy that explains it in a visual way with a practical example.
The Internet of Things is changing much about the world we live in. By way of example, the video mentions the way we drive (think about the autonomous or driverless car but also about smart parking systems and how the IoT can help in solving traffic issues or car diagnostics), the way we purchase (retail is one of the industries where the IoT is being looked at intensively) and how we get/pay energy (smart meters, for instance).
The IBM Think Academy YouTube channel video focuses a lot on how embedded sensors and chips send data that can be used for numerous reasons and then explains various applications where this data can be used. That’s not a surprise as the Internet of Things can’t be separated from big data (analytics) and artificial intelligence and cognitive computing, domains where IBM is highly involved in.
That is also what the Internet of Things is essentially about: how data is used from chips and sensors to drive various business processes, automate them, enable new applications and service customers in entirely new ways, to name a few.
The video gives the example of a car that alerts its driver a ‘check engine’ is needed and then shows how this data is leveraged in various scenarios, making the Internet of Things very tangible in case you are relatively new to what the IoT means and can mean in practice.
Hungry for more? The Think Academy channel has some other nice videos on the IoT and other technologies, explained in a simple and hands-on way.
The Internet of Things in an infographic
Below is an infographic by Goldman Sachs on the Internet of Things which pretty well summarizes several of its aspects and evolutions.
Top image: Shutterstock – Copyright: jamesteohart – All other images are the property of their respective mentioned owners.